The Arab Word Toursim | StudyDaddy.com

*********** in *** **** *********************** in * ***** village ****** *** ******* ***** *********** ***** nations *** eroding ** * ******* **** *** *** ** ****** or ******* The *************** as * ********** *** been seen ** most ******* ** *** ***** the tremendous economic *********** witnessed ********* *** ********** ** ********** the ********* ***** of means ** ************* and transportation the increasing ************* *** *********** *** ******* ****** *** borders to ******** **** **** ****** *** **** ***** ******* *** now ************ our ***** **** * ***** village where cultural *********** are ******* This ***** ** ********** *** ************ between globalization *** ******* ** ****** ** the ****** ****** by **** *** more ************ ** **** countries (Middle **** *** ***** ****** regions) *** **** ******* ** this ***** ** **** ******** benefits ** ******* supported by aspects of ************* **** basically *** ***** ** **** ********* less consideration *** ***** ** ************* *** ************** ******* ****** ** ******* due ** *** **** ** development ** well ** low ******** ** ****** *** ****** ** these countries; **** ******* ********* the **** ** ******* a more *********** ******** *** development *** tourismKeywords: **** ********* Middle **** ***** Africa Globalization ******* Impacts  Introduction”Ideas ** *************** *** so ***** ** ******* *** ** ********** **** ** ********* ***** ******** ** pronounce ********* anything on the ******** ******** ***** 427) **** statement ******** how ** ** ********* ** **** a definition **** ********** *** ******* ******* ** ************* ******** ** *** ********** ** this ******* **** ** *** ******* ***** ***** *** ********* definitions *** *********** **** **** *** *** **** ********** ******** ***** **** ** these *********** ********* * geographical ****** ******* **** ******* ******* ****** *** for ******* ****** to *************** ** ‘a ******* of ******** government-imposed restrictions ** movements ******* countries ** order ** ****** an “open” ************ ***** ******** ** **** ***** cases there *** * ***** on *** ******** ******** *** social ********** ************ ******* ****** *** ************ **** ** ** ****** 16) ******* globalization ** * * process *** *** ** ********** ***** embodies * transformation ** *** ******* ************ of ****** ********* *** ************ * assessed ** ***** of ***** ********* ********* ******** *** ****** * ********** **************** or inter-regional ***** *** ******** ** ********* The ******* ** *************** **** *** ** ******** to as *** ********** integration ** ********* around *** ***** ************ through ***** *** financial ***** *** ******* is ********** as **** *** ******** ** people ******* *** knowledge ************ ****** ************* ******* (IMF ***** ‘It is the ever-tightening ******* ** *********** ***** cut across ******** boundaries *********** *********** in *** ************* combinations’ ***** ***** **** Moreover ***** *********** *** *** ******* * ***** **** is * ****** interconnected *** interdependent ***** * *********** **** ** a ****** ****** ***** ****** ** *** ******* ** local *********** (Allen & ****** ***** **** ****** *** ******** it is *** ***** spreading various ******* *** *********** ** ****** all **** *** ***** ******** ************ ********** ********* *********** ** ************* *** *** ********** the multidimensionality ** such ******* ******* interrelated ******* ** our **** *** ******* **** ** ***** ********* to ******* (1997) ***** aspects can be classified into six ********* ******* which **** *** ****** ** communications and ***** that ****** a nearly ********* ******* ******* individuals *** **** ** air travel telephony ******** networks ***** *** television); *** spread *** *** ********* of ******** *********** ***** ************ *** ********** ******** *** ************** **** work ****** ************ *********** *** ***** *** ******** ** ***** *** services between countries *** spread ** money *** financial *********** *** Eurobonds *** **** ************ *** ******* ****** *** *** ** ****** *** *** ******* ******* Right) ***** ************** ********* across the world ** ***** ***** ** time; another **** ****** ** *** ********* of ****** ***** in *** ******* **** ** stratospheric ozone ********* *** the decline ** ********** ********* ** ******* of ************ *********** which ** not *********** ** ******** or circumscribed by ******* *** finally *** ****** ****** ****** by ****** ****** *** ***** that it is * ****** ***** **** than a globe ******* into borders this *** ** ******* seen ******* *********** ********** **** *********** based ** *********** and cultural ******* *** of ********* ***** race etc) Tourism (as a *********** ****** ******* on the progress ** ************* *** ************** ***** are **** reinforced ** ***** ******** and *** ************ ** ********* *** ******** and different ************** ********* ***** ************** **** ********* *** ****** factors **** ***** *********** **** ** shaping *** *********** ** ******** *** ********* ******* *********** and social changes ******** *** financial ************ transport ************** ****** ************* *********** *** *********** ** ******* *** **** *********** ** *** ****** in ******* as ** ******** *** market ****** *** *********** **** ** destination ******* marketing ******** *********** ******* ****** *********** databases *** ********** ******** *** *** ** *** variation ** ******* ******* *** ******* ******* for **** ****** *** world **** ***** It ******* logic then ** ******** ******* as a **** ********* in *** ******* of ************* ******** *** ********** ** ******* ******** ****** ************* by ******** and ***** ** ********* ********** all **** *** ***** *** increase of ******* ********* ******* *** rapidity **** ***** ********* ************ are ***** **** ******* *********** *** ******** ** ******* ************ and ********* ******* ***** all *** ********** the ******** ********* ** ****************** ******* *** ********* which *** ******* an instrumental **** ** *** ************* ** tourism (Mowforth ***** **** 2003) Globalization *** TourismThere are some ******* ****** ** ************* that have ***** ***** ****** ** ******* ****** *** hospitality ********** The liberalization ** air ********* ************** of trade ** ******** and *** ****** of *********** *** ************* ************ the extensive *** ** ******** ** ***** *** ********* of ***** and *************** *** ********** to *** continuous growth ** ******* industry (ILO 2001) *** ****** ****** *** ******* ********** of *** 21st century *** ****** ********* ** civil ******** **** *** be clearly seen ******* the calling ** ******** *********** and ************* *** ******** ******** ************* for ******** ************* between air ********* ******* ************** ******* ********** *** ******* *********** ******** **** ************ **** increase *** contribution ** *** ****** *** ******* ******** ** ******** economies *** ******** development ********* and developing countries vitally depending ** ******* ** * **** source of ****** and *** ************* *** which *** ******* for foreign investment ** ****** exploit *** ****** their ******* scenic ********** or ******** ********* for ******* ******** are now ** *** front **** ******* *** *** ********* ************** **** 2006) ******** ********** ********** ** also ************ **** ****** ** giving access ** **** and ***** *********** *** online *********** ******** ******* **** of *********** ********* *** exploiting ********* ******* ************** *** grown ** *** **** ** years; ***** *** ******* ************* arrivals were ******** in **** accounting *** ****** US$852 ******* of receipts (UNWTO ***** ******** ** is ********* **** **** ****** **** take ***** *** **** *** ***** destinations ********* *** ******* numbers ** ******** *** also *** ***** ones with ***** market ****** ********* to *** ****** ********* ** the year **** ******* that ****** the ******** *** **** Asia *** the ******* will ******* *** *** ** ***** ******** other ************ ** Africa and ***** **** will also ******* an ******** ** ***** arrivals ** well (55% *** 6% *** **** respectively) ******** **** * ***** ******* ** **** **** ******** ******** to ***** * vital ****** ** ****** ** **** from these ********** ** ** **** * ***** source of employment according to * World ****** *** Tourism ******* ****** ********* for *** **** **** ******** ******* **** **** ******** offered ** tourism ****** *** ***** and **** ******* *** % ** *** world total) if all *** indirect **** ************* ** *** sector are ***** **** account ******* **** *** * significant ************ ** *** ** *** ***** ***** *** *** ******* ********** private and ****** sectors ******** *** expected ** ***** *** ***** ******* ********* ***** ** total ********** ** **** *** ******** ******** ** ******** ** post ******* ******** ** a total ******* **** ***** ****** ** ******** ** **** ** ******** ******** ** 2019 **** ****** ********** are ****** ********** ** ******* *** ****** ******** ** * *********** ****** *** **** countries ****** *** *********** **** ***** *** ****** ** ******* **** ****** is *** **** ******** ***** ******* stages; for ******* since *** ****** **** **** ******* tourism *** **** ******* ** term ** **** ******** and receipts ******** of having **** ********* **** **** place because of some ****** ****** **** ********** ***** **** ******* travel *** ******* worldwide ******** **** depressing scourges *** economic ********* ** recessions ** some ***** ******* ********** markets ********** terrorist ******* ***** ****** **** ******* etc) ********** ******** conflicts ** Afghanistan *** **** *** *** **** ******** *** **** ******** *** **** ****** ****** in tourism ** *** **** ** ***** **** ************* tourist arrivals ** 10 per cent **** ******** ***** (IVC ***** ******* *** ****** to be quick ** ******* which ********* *** potential ** be * ***** source ** economy Another ********* ****** **** *********** ** tourism ****** is ****** substantial ******* ** ******* ******** *** ******** **** ********* ** ************* ****** these ******* the ********* ********* ** ****** *** *** ******* ***** ** **** expensive ************ ****** ** **** ***** ********* ***** ********** of ****** and ************** *** **** ******** of *** *** ************** routes ******* ** ******** airlines ****** have ************ ***** ******** in ****** *** are growing rapidly ** **** Pacific and *** ****** ****** *** **** spread ** *** ****** ******** ** ‘do ** *********** and *********** booking stimulated *** *********** ** *** ********* and *** ********** ***** *********** ***** has led ** ** increasing need for *** ******** ******* ** innovate and diversify ** ***** ** ******* *********** and marketing **** 2006)  All of ***** ********** and changes are ****** * ****** ******** for *** growing importance ** tourism ** the ******* *** *********** of ********* ****** *** ***** A ***** **** ** ****** ****** of ******* ***** ********* regions (WTO ********** ***** *** **** ** * ***** **** ***** **** ****** *** ***** *** relationship ******* ************* *** ******* Since *** **** 1995 *** number of tourists’ ******** has **** ********** **** ** ******* *** ***** ** *** ******* international ******** ****** ** million tourists ***** **** ** ******* increase ** 45% ****** (Fig3)This increase ** *** 36 ******** ******** was distributed **** ******* ******* as ******** ****** *** millions: **** **** and ******* (12 ********* **** Americas ** ********* *** Africa ** ********* *** *** ********** (15 ******** *** **** ************* ************ ** ******** ** tourists’ ******* was ** ******** the ************ ** ********* ******** in 2009 is ********** *** *********** differences ***** ***** ******** ****** ** term ** **** ******** *** ******** **** * ***** ******** ************ ** ********* ******** ***** ********* world ******* ** ********** * very ******* ****** **** ** these regions are considerably ****** **** others ** ***** ** the ****** ***** they **** First ***** ********* are receiving *** bulk ** ************* tourists ************ are ********* **** of *** ******** **** ***** **** is in ******** ** *** **** that **** *** ******** **** income per ************* ******* **** ***** ***** countries ********* * ******* ** globalization ** ** be seen **** ************* ** *** uneven *** ******* *********** ****** ********* ** *** level ** ******* *********** and facilities ******** in ***** destinations ********* & Munt **************** World ******* ******** ************* ******** Arrivals *** *** **** **** ****** 2010)   Fig2: ***** Inbound Tourism: ************* ******** Receipts *** $ Billion) *** *** **** **** ****** *********** ********* *** ******** ********** **** *** ****** ******* more ******* than others ******* other ********* **** ******** ********* ******* ********* ** **** *** high inflation ****** ***** **** (IMF 2000) Considering *** ***** **** of tourism in supporting ********* ** ** *** ******* then ** ** perceived by cash-starved Third World ********* ** * shortcut ** ***** *********** **** ** ***** countries ***** the ********** Adjustment ******* (SAPs) ******* by ************* ******** **** ***** to ** *** ******** ** ***** deteriorating ******** situations ***** ** ****** financial *************** SAPs ***** *** ************* *** *** ******** of ********* ********** ******* the ******** ******* to be ********** **** *** ****** ******** deregulate *** ********** its ******** ***** **** an ***************** ** a manufacturing *** service ************** economy; *** liberalize *** ********* sector The strategy of *** ** ***** ** ********* ********** economies ** ******* investments *** ************* corporations ***** *********** subsidies *** ********** ** ***** industries **** *** great ***** of tourism as ****** and ********** generator the Third World *********** ***** to fulfill ***** ********** through ************ infrastructure ******** such ** ***** ****** and ***************** ******** **** ********** *** opportunities *** **** ************* *********** ** take ***** in ***** ****************** ****** *** ******* investments **** reached $800 billion annually ********** *** *** ** total ********* investments (Chavez ***** **** revolution in *** ******* ** ***** ********* *** development of ******* *** ******** in *** ******** of ******* ************ numbers; ************ *** tourism ****** became *** ** still ******** ************ segmented **** ********* ***** ** ******* ******* *** *********** instead ** **** tourism ********* ***** Munt 2003) **** ******* ******** ********** ** ************ ** parks ****** ******** and ******* settings; ******** *** ******** ******* ** ********* ******** *** ******** ***** and ************ customs *** ********** ** **** ** ******** ** ********* ************ ********* ******* ** ** ******** ******** scuba-diving *** ******* ***** park ******* ****** ******* in ******* hot ******* ***** ******* ** ***** Cup football *** ******* events; *** ****** ***** ******* from ********* ***** ****** the ***** ******** & Lamoureux ********* noticing **** many ** *** destinations *** ***** **** ** these ***** ** ******* *** ****** ****** *** in ********** ********** *** *********** **** tourism ** ***** ********* *** **** ********** ******** ** 6% as ******** to *** ** developed countries *** *** **** that they ******* a big ****** of *********** environments *** the ******** ** the distinct ********** cultures; *** these ****** make **** ****** * target ** ********** economies and ****** of ******** ******* ****** ****** **** First ***** (developed ********** ******* *** ***** ***** these ***** ***** countries ***** *** *** ******* *** same amounts ** ******* ***** ***** countries **** *** of ******* ********* ***** **** ***** *** ******** of tourism ** ***** ***** ********* might **** resulted in ** economic ******* ******* *** ******* ** arrivals and ******* *** it *** **** *** ******** ****** ** ***** environments *** *********** ** which **** ********* located in *** two ******* ** ****** East *** ***** ****** are ******* * significant ********* ** ******* ********* ** **** ***************** ** ********** ** * major ****** ** ******* ******** ***** then important ** **** ********** ******* *** **************** purposes *** *** *********** ** ************** *** in ****** tourism ** ********** ** *** **** ****** ** ******* ******** ******* ***** *** remittances **** ******** ********* ******** ******* also is * ******* generator ** employment to **** ** these ********* (eg ********* ** the ******** ******* Authority *** of *** ******** ********** ** ********* on ******* *** earning their ****** ** ***** * *********** ********** ** ** semi-skilled *** ********* employees; in ******* 17-18% ** **** *** ** ******* ****** ******** or *********** ** **** hotels are required ** *** to have *** ** *** ********* **** local ******** ********** ******* also helps ** ******** *** ********** ** ***** ******* ** ******* *** **** countries *** giving * **** **** example here ***** ********* **** ******* to ********* *** ********** of ******* ** ******** ***** ******** ** *** revenues in *** long **** eg ***** in UAE **** Qatar *** ********* ****** some other ********* **** *** oil ******** *** **** ****** tourism development **** ** *** to the **** of **** to diversify ***** economies *** *** Dhabi ** *** Kuwait and Saudi ******* **** **************** ** *** reports ** ***** ****** *** Tourism Council *** ******** ********** *** ********** * **** ********* contribution ** ******* *** ****** ******** ** Arab ********* ********* In **** travel ***** tourism ** ******** ** **** US$2419 billions ** ******** ******** *** * total ******* growing ** ******* ******** by **** ** *** ****** **** ****** (WTTC ****** **** **** *** ** **** ** **** regards *** ************ ** ***** GDP *** ****** *** ******* industry is ******** ** **** * *** ************ ** *** ** **** ***** **** * ***** ** ****** East ****** and ******* ********** ** expected ** ******** ******* **** ** 2009 *** of ***** employment ** 1 ** ***** 111 **** ** 2019 **** ***** ** predicted ** ****** 6876000 **** 95% ** ***** ********** ** * ** ***** *** **** ***** 2009a) In ***** ****** ****** ***** ******* ** expected ** post US$788 ******** of ******** ******** *** * total ******* growing to US$1587 billions ** **** ***** 2009b) North ****** ****** and ******* employment is estimated ** ****** 5440000 **** ** **** 112% ** total employment ** * ** ***** ** jobs ** **** **** ****** ** jobs ** ******** ** end **** ******* **** **** ** total ********** or 1 ** ***** ** jobs (WTTC ********************* *** vital **** ** ****** *** tourism ** a ***** exporter ***** ******* ******** inject ******* ******** ******** into *** economy; ** ***** Middle **** ******* travel *** tourism is ******** ** ******** **** ******** ********* ** **** ********** ** ******* billions ***** ** total) ** **** *** ****** East’s ****** *** ******* ******** ** ******** to contribute *** to ***** Domestic Product (GDP) in 2009 ******* ********* ****** ** ******* ******** **** of total) ** **** Middle **** ****** *** ******* ******* ********** ** ********* ** ****** ******** ** **** ** ***** ********** in year **** ** 2019 **** ******** ** expected to ***** US$829 ******** ** 102% ** total ***** 2009a) In North ****** ***** ******* ** ****** *** ******* ** ******** to ******** **** ******* ********* ** **** ********** ** ****** billions ***** ** total) ** **** ***** ******** travel and tourism industry ** expected ** contribute 53% ** ***** ******** ******* ***** in **** (US$296 ********* ****** ** ****** ****** ******** (52% ** ****** ** 2019 ** ***** ****** ****** *** ******* ******* ********** is ********* ** ** US$142 billions ** 107% ** total ********** ** year **** **** ******** ** ********* ** reach ************** ** **** ** ***** ** **** (WTTC ************** ** Tourism ** Arab WorldThere are ******* ********** **** make *** growth ** ******* ** the **** countries ********** for international ******** ***** close ****** ** *** inclusive **** markets of north-west Europe **** **** ********* of ********* ***** **** ******* based ****** ** sun sea *** ***** extensive tourism infrastructure ** good ***** *** ******** of ** international standards; **** ** ** ******** to the considerable ***** *********** ** major ****** and ******* ******** ***** ** the ********** ******* ****** ****** *** **** ************ ******* **** staging ****** for ********** on *** **** routes ******* Western Europe *** *** **** **** Pacific ******** the ******** ** ******** *********** (archaeological ********** *** ********* ****** ***** *** ****** ******** the earliest civilizations *** *** three ***** ***** religions ******** ************ *** Islam); *** ********* climate for ***** tourism *** *** ******** ** ******* the ************* *** some ****** ****** ** **** mountain ranges ********* ***** Cooper 2001) For ************* ******* ******** from Arab ********** ** increase is ******** *** to: *** ***** ********** ** ******* *** ********** ** **** ** * ****** language *** ******* need for ******* ***** ****** ** ************** ** hotels ***** *** ******** ** **** ******** ****** with ***** ******** *** prefer ************* in family housing and ********* ****** ***** enforced **** *** **** **** ****** *********** and intermarriage ******* ********* of ********* **** countries create ‘intraregional ******** ************ *** **** in ******* with ******** ****** *** ***** ******* of *** ****** language; variety ** ******* ************ ******* *** ************ the ****** ** *** tourism ****** ** ********** ********** ******* Arab ********* (as ** *** case ** Jordan ***** ***** a ****** ** ******** from Iraq the ****** **** Jamahiriya *** ****** **** Republic and Yemen) also educational tourism **** *** numbers ** **** ******** studying ** **** ************ ********** after ** ********* ***** ****** ***** *** Middle East *** ******* ** ********** ** be one of *** ******* ******* ****** ************* a considerable ****** in ***** ** ******* ********** ** witnessed (eg **************** Hotels has ********* ** **** **** ** Holiday Inns **** Group *** ********* ** **** ***** 38 ****** to the ****** by 2011) **** 2007) Till *** **** *** ******* the ************ ** *** ** some ********* ** ** *** case ** Gulf States ********** the **** ** ********* ***** ********* ******* of **** ********** ***** these ********* ****** aware that **** ****** will be **** ********* and ** **** ******* ** attract ******* development ** ********* their ******** **** (as in *** **** of ***** ******** *** ******* Promotion ***** ***** ** ***** its *** wealth ** create **** courses ** *** ****** ** ****** * cruise ************ ********* & ****** ***** ******* this strong **** *** tourism ***** are **** ********* ****** *** *********** ********** on *** ************* ****** ***** **** **** **** *********** ** ******* **** ** ******* flights *** inadequate ********* ** ******* ******** ********* ** their ********** ******** *** ********** to ******* ******* ******** ** an ******** manner (ESCWA 2007)  Not **** important ** *** previous factors is *** ******** ********* ********* ** *** region *** ************ ******* conflict Gulf *** 1990-1 ******* *** **** ** management and ******** ** ******* ******** ** **** ***** *** **** ** ********* ** **** ******** ** Arab societies about *** ********** of ******* *** *** ******** causing **** a negative ********** and ******** toward ******* ************* from * ************** ***** ** view) * ********* **** ********* * number ** ********** ** **** regions *** ********** of ******* tourists ** ********* ** the ******** ********* of ***** terrorism ******* on tourists ****** ***** ** ****** ********* & ****** ***** **** **** was ** continue after a ****** ** ************* ****** ***** ******** the growth ** ******* worldwide and ** **** countries as well *** **** *** started ** **** *** *** spread ** some ******** ** ***** (WTO ********************* ****** on Arab ********* ******* ********* ******** ** the ********* ********* ***** **** ***** ******* *********** *** ****** ** tourism ********* ************* and *************** ***** ***** *** **** ** *************** are ********** **** industry ** Arab ********** ***** ******* *** *********** ** ****** ** ***** countries by *** development ** transportation and *** infrastructure; *** ******** in investment *********** *********** and *************** of ******* ********* *** *********** ** ********* ********** *** quality *** ********** the institutional ************ the ************** *********** ****** ***** *** ** many ********** *** *********** of electronic ********** (for ******* *** *********** *** buying the trip); the emerge ** new ******** ** *** experience ** tourism **** 3 **** Entertainment ********** *** ********** ***** **** segments of ********* ************* **** societies) *** ********** the destination ** * fashion ********* **** 2004a) ** * ****** published ** ***** ****** ** *** ********* **** many ************ ** the ****** **** ****** **** ****** an ******** in ******* arrivals for *** ***** 2003 and 2004; ***** is ********* **** *********** ** the ************** ******* ******** *** ******** **** western *** ******** ************* ********* * significant increase in *** number ** visitors that reached *** ** ** ****** **** ***** receipts ********* ** *** in *** ***** half of *** **** **** Some countries *** **** ************ ******* ** their ******* numbers; according ** *** ***** *** **** ******** from *** **** ****** ** ** **** 2004 were recorded ** Lebanon while *** ***** number **** ** ** ******** ** *** ***** *** ******** ** ***** arrivals **** * *** rise ** ********** ***** *** ******** ** ***** Other destinations such ** ***** ***** ******* (+19%) *** ****** (+18%) **** ********* **** *** strong ***** ****** *** ********* ******* ** international arrivals to *** North ******* ************ *** ******* as **** ** increase ** *** ** ******* *** *** ** ******* **** ******** *** *** **** **** ******* ******** **** also ******* **** in ******* ******* ** Tunisia ** ** **** 2004) According ** *** *********** ** *** *********** **** ** *** **** ********* were ****** * big ***** **** *** ***** ****** of ******** coming ** *** Middle **** and ***** ******* countries; **** *** noticed ** ********* **** ***** Arabia depending on pilgrimage ******* ***** million ******** *** 2002) ***** with *** ***** ****** ** ******* ******** sites ******* ******* *** **** ***** ***** ******* ******** *** ***** ******* **** its ******** ** ********** ***** *** coastal ******* ***** ******* ******** *** 2003) UAE ******* of its **** investments and shopping ****** (5445 ******* ******** *** ***** ******* with *** **** *********** ** ******* resorts *** historical sites ***** million ******** for 2003) ******* ********** tourists *** *** ******** houses and ******** (3167 ******* ******** *** 2002) *** Syria **** *** ********** ***** *** ********* ******* ***** ******* tourists *** 2002) These ********* **** *** ******** by other ********* **** ****** * variety ** *********** ** ***** ***** ***** as Jordan ***** ******* ******** *** 2003) *** Lebanon ***** ******* ******** *** ***** **** other countries though were **** toward ******* development *** ********* ****** because ** *************** ** ***** economy *** in *** **** ** ****** **** *** Qatar) ** ****** ******* of **** ** *********** and ********* ** their ******* sites ** **** as unstable ********* or social situations *** ** the **** of ***** and Iraq) (Fig ** **** ***** This growth ****** *** not to ******** the ********** ***** ** WTO ****** ***** *** ******** percentages ****** *** years ******* ***** 2006/5) ***** a ******* ******** **** **** ***** ** most ** ***** regions; **** ******** though *** ******* ** ** slight in ******* ** ****** **** ******* *** Europe; ***** ** ******* ** the ******** *** Middle **** **** ******** was ****** ** ********** *************** ** *** ******* of *********** Arrivals within *********** ***** Arab ********* **** *************** ** *** ********** ** ******** ** *** ****** ** ******** ****** *********** Among ******* ******* **** ************ **** countries the ********** show **** ****** **** *** **** ** ******** of (39% for ******* ******** ** **** *** ******** *** **** ******* ** North ****** ***** ** ******** of **** (58% *** ******* ******** to (89% for ******* is ******** Such numbers are somehow ********** *** reality ** a ********* ***** is ***** *** ********** unequal benefits ***** ***** ******* *** ** *** **** ** ****** *********** and ********* ** ***** **** ** related ** ************* ***** ** ******** *** economic ********* *** ************* dominance that is *********** **** ** **** ********* ********* *** powers **** ** to **** **** ** looking ** WTO ********** for *** years **** *** 2009 **** ** ******** ************** ** *** ********** of Increase in *** Number ** ******** ****** *********** ***** ******* Regions ******** ************ impacts ** ******* **** *** ********* ** and ********* residents of *** *********** **** **** forms *** ******** ******* ** tourism are **** ******* ********* ****** *** ****** ********* (Pizam 1978) ********* **** opportunities **** ***** *** ***** ****** & ***** ***** increasing ********** ********** tax revenues *** ********* *** ************** ******* ***** ***** 1988) ****** ******* *********** to *** ******** ** ****** ** ***** *** ********** ** **** as *** ****** ** goods *** services (Liu ***** *** ***** Pizam ***** *********** **** ******* supports *** protection ** natural ***** ** well as the preservation ** ******** ******** and ********* **** ***** *** **** ****** ***** Richmond ***** ** *** ***** hand ******* can increase ********** *** ******** besides contributing to different ***** of ********* (Pizam 1978) Sociocultural ******* ** tourism *** ************* ** *** *********** ** life ******* ****** 1978) ************ ** cultural ******** *** ************* ***** ********* ********** and their ******* together; ******** ** ***** ** ********** *** ******** identity of **** culture ** **** cases ******* *********** ** the spread ** **** negative ****** ** ************ ********* ********** (Liu ***** *** 1987) ******* influence ** locals’ way ** life *** ** ***** ******* ** *** ****** to ***** ********* *** become **** obvious **** the globalization ** ***** ******* ** ** ******* **** ** **** ******* ********* that ******* *** brought ***** **** ******** ******* ** **** ***** *********** even ***** ** ************* Even **** *** **** of ***** communities ***** *** ***** ********** ** *********** tourism ********** **** **** now **** ******** *** ******* ******** more ************ ********** and ***** kinds of new ******* (Chavez ***** This ** simply *** ** *** **** ** ******* *********** ******** ** *** number ** ******** *** *** competition of ******* with ***** ******** sectors As ****** (1997) states ******* the ******** ******** ** ******* ** **** countries ******** **** ********* ***** ******* ********* investments ** ***** sectors environmental *********** ****** *********** *** ************* ** ****** ********** of *** mentioned ***** ******* ******** the **** ** have * **** ********* managed and ******* ******* which **** mainly at the ******** ****** and ************* sustainability ** *** ****** Although ** *** positive ******* ** ******* ** Arab ********** ******** ******* **** *** ********* ** **** ******* reflecting **** a **** ** awareness ***** ****** ******* to ****** *** ************ as well ** * **** ** ************ ******** *** ********** ** ******* *** ********* of ********* *** sites ******* ** tourism development  The ******** ** ******* ** Arab ********* **** mentioned ** *** studies; of which **** were ******* with ************* *********** as *** ********* ************* disposal of ***** ***** the untreated ********** discharged to the *** *** so contaminating ground ***** ***** ***** ******* ** ********** *** chemicals ** ****** the ****** ** coral ***** ** tourists ** **** **** as ********* *** *** *********** ** ******** in *** Red *** **** ** ***** (Shaalan ****** *** ******** ******* tourists *** pilgrims because ** contradiction ** ******* (the **** ** ****** Gardens in ***** (Gatrell ***** ******* ****** the social and environmental ************* and *** ***** between ******* and European ****** in Tunisia ******** ****** *** ***** ****** *********** in ******** ******* ******* ****** and ***** *** *** ******** impact on ********* ************ ***** ******* 2001); the ****** ** development ******** by tourism ***** ** ************* ** *** **** ************ ** *** ******* resource base ** *** ******* ****** *** ** the **** of Mount Sinai *** *** ********* ** Saint ********* ** ****** ********* ****** the ********** of ******** ** ***** ****** ******** ** ******* ** ******** to **** ** ******* ********* ****** **** **** ***** ** ******* *** ********* of coasts *** *** water in ******* ********* ******* tourists in Egypt ******* ***** *** ** ***** studies *** **** ****** *** ********** ******* signs ******* *** ************* ** environments *** *********** of communities ***** *** caused by *** growth of ******* supported ** ************* ********************* becomes ***** **** ************* and ******* *** generating * ************ benefit ** many *********** *** countries ******* ***** relationship *** *********** increase **** in *** number of ********* ******** *** ******** ** **** ** ***** * **** ****** *** any tourism ************ *** ****** as *** ******* ** ************* resources ************ and *** ******* ** local *********** ****** be **** ********** *** economic ******** *** ****** ******* ** *** ********* with ********* ***** ** variables *** measures *** problem ** **** such ******* ** not equally ***** ** the ************* *** ****** ****** ********** **** the need ** have **** sustainable ******** ** tourism *********** ******** ** ****** authorities *** ***** ************ **** ************ ******* **** tourism *********** ***** ******* *** expansion of tourist ******* ****** it ****** ** combined with *********** ** ******* services ******* controlling their performance to avoid *** deterioration ** the ************ of ******** ** ************* ******************** to WTO & UNEP (2005) **** ****** ***** ** taken **** ******* ***** ** *** ******** ** ******* sustainability in ******** ***** ******** ******** the ********* *** *************** of tourism ************ *** enterprises by ************* **** ********* consumers *** looking **** *** ***** ** trends *** changes ** source ****** conditions ** well as ****** patterns and tastes **** requires ** ********* *** ongoing ****** ********* ********** *** ************ ** tourism ** *** ******** ********** of the host *********** ** ********** locally ***** ********** and ensuring ********** ** ***** ****** ******** * ********** *** **** distribution ** economic *** social ******** from ******* throughout *** ********* community ********* ********* ************* ****** and services available ** *** ***** ******** *** ***** ********* ** *** development ** ******* ******** *** plans; ** addition to ********** *** enhancing *** ******** heritage ********* culture traditions and distinctiveness of host *********** maintain and ******* *** ******* ** ********** **** ***** and ***** *** ***** *** ******** *** ****** *********** ** the ****************************** J & Massey * 1995 ************ Worlds **** ********** ***** Milton ****** *** **** Middle East ******** ** **** 7% a Year **** ***** News ** the ***** **************** B ***** Cooper C 2001 ********* ************* *** ********* ** ****** *** ******* *** edition Butterworth-Heinemann Oxford Chavez R **** ************* and ******** Deadly *** *** ********** ******* ***** World ********** No ************** * **** Globalization ********* ********* and ******** ** the ****** World ********** ***** for *** Info ****** 98 UNESCO ESCWA 2007 The Annual Review of ************ ** ************* *** ******** *********** in the **** ********* issued ** ******** *** ****** ********** *** ******* **** ****** Nations *** ***************** * ***** ******* * **** ********** *** ******* ** ************ ************ *** **** ** ******** ** ****** and ***** ******* ********** 22(5): **************** J ***** ******* * **** ********** ****** ******** Pilgrims and *** ********** ******** Gardens ** ***** Geoforum 37(5) ************ Chunk Y **** ************* ******** * ****** ************ World Tourism ********************** * **** ****** are ****** in the ******* Linking Biodiversity ************ ** ********* Development ** the Middle **** ******* * Case Study **** the ***** ********* ************ ******** ***** Journal ** **** ************ *** 29–38 Hall * **** The ******** ** ******** ******** ** ********* and *** ****** edited ** * **** * **** **** McGrew ****** ***** ************** * **** *** Development of Tourism ********** in *** **** World: Trapped ******* *** Forces ** Economic ************* and Cultural *************** ** ******** version ** * paper ********* ** 30th ****** Convention ** *** *********** ** ************* ********** ********* ****** ** the theme of ******** **** ********* & *** ****** ************ ******** * **** ** ********** DC Hawkins * ***** Lamoureux * 2001 ****** Growth and ********* of Ecotourism ** *** ************ ** ********** ****** ** D ****** 63-72 CABI Publishing ***************** * ****** * ********* * ***** ******** J **** ****** Transformations * ******** Economics *** ******* ********** ****** ********** **** ************** Threat or *********** * ****** ** *** ***** of ************* ******** **** (January 2002) ILO **** ***** ********* *********** ********** *** Globalization ** *** ***** ******** *** ******* ****** Report for ********** ** the Tripartite ******* ** the ***** ********* *********** ********** *** Globalization ** the ***** ******** *** ******* ****** ************* ***** ************ Office *********** 2006 *** Economic ****** ** *** ******* Liberalization ***** ******* ********** Inc: ******* wwwintervistasus Liu J & *** * **** Resident ********* toward ******* ******* ** ****** Annals ** ******* ******** ** **** 193-214 Milman * *** ***** * **** ****** Impacts ** ******* on Central Florida ****** ** ******* Research ** **** ***************** * ***** **** * 2003 Tourism *** ************** 2nd ******* ******* **************** A **** ******* Impacts: *** ****** ***** ** *** Destination ********* ** ********* ** *** Residents ******* of ****** ******** ***** 8-12  Poirier * 1995 Tourism *** Development in Tunisia ****** of ******* ******** ***** ******* ******* * **** ************* * Critical ************ London: PalgraveScholte J **** ****** ********** *** *** ***** International Affairs ***** *************** R J *** Richmond ***** ** ****** Islanders’ Perceptions ** ******* ******* ** ****** ******** *** 30-31 UNESCO **** ******* *** ******** ********** the Mix *** UNESCO ******* ************ ******* *** *********** C **** ***** Tourism: **** ***** ******* * ************ ***** at ******* Out **** ******** Challenges Changes and ************* in ******* ****** above the Current Global ******** Landscape (2- * ******** 2010) ******* ********** * **** ***** ****** ****** ********** Middle East ******** ******* ****** *** ****** **** ********* ** *** ***** *************** **** ******* ******* to Middle **** *** ***** ****** ***** ******* ***************** ***** Tourism **** ******* *** ********** *** ************* *** ****** East ************ * ************ ** * Abdel-Ghaffar (a regional representative ** *** for the ****** ***** ** * ******* on ** ******** *** ***** ** *********** ******* ******** ***** ****** **** ***** **** ********** ***** International *** European Tourism: **** and ****** a presentation *** L ******* ** ******** ************** of *** *** Europe) ** * ******* *** *** ******** ********** *** Europe **** ******* Rimini *** San Marino ***** May **** ********** **** ********* (Issue ** **** 2007) ****** **** World ******* ************* http://wwwunwtoorg WTO 2010 Barometer ****** ** **** ***** ****** * (2) ***** ******* ************* *********************** ***** **** **** Making Tourism **** Sustainable: * ***** *** ****** ******* Published *** ***** Tourism ************ and ****** ******* ************* ************* ***** ****** *** ******* Economic ******* ****** **** ** online ********* ********************************************** ********* on: 26102010 ***** Travel *** ******* ************* 2010b ****** *** Tourism Economic Impact: ***** ****** ** online ********* *********************************************** retrieved *** ******** World ****** *** ******* *******


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